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هنر یك واژه كهن اوستائی است و در زبان فارسی از پیشوند «هو» بمعنی خوب و واژه «نر» بمعنی مردانگی و توانایی پیوند یافته و «هونر» بمعنی «خوب توانی» بكار رفته است. بیش از هزار سال است كه پیشینه واژه هنر باین معنی در زبان و شعر فارسی دیده میشود فردوسی گفته

 در زبان یونانی واژه برای هنر نیست و در زبانهای فرنگی واژة «آرت» كه امروز بكار میبرند بمعنی صنعت است و در معنی هنر تازه بكار رفته است و برای معنی هنر رسا نیست. در زبان عرب نیز واژه برای هنر نیست و برای هنر واژه «الفن» را كه از فارسی گرفته اند بكار میبرند و بدان «الفنون الجمیله» گویند و به هنرمند «فنان». صنایع ظریفه و مستظرفه نیز از ساخته‌های فارسی زبانان است و این معنی‌ها نیز برای هنر رسا نیست. در زبانهای اروپائی منظور از «آر» یا «آرت» بیشتر هنر نقاشی بوده است و بعد آنرا به پیكرسازی و شعر و موسیقی و رشته‌های دیگر گفته اند خلاصه آنكه هنر را دارای هفت رشته دانسته اند: نقاشی،موسیقی،رقص،نمایش،پیكرتراش وساختمان،شعر وخطابه. بهمین جهت برای هنر هفت فرشته قائل شده اند. گرچه در میان رشته‌های هنری برخی موسیقی و رقص و شعر را فسادانگیز دانسته اند ولی صوفیان رقص و سماع را تجویز كرده و ستوده اند. هنر دوستی و حس زیبائی پرستی از آغاز با آدمی همراه بوده است شواهد بسیار هست كه هنرمند از همه چیز رابطه‌های زیبا استخراج میكند. وقتی یك جنگل را یك دانشمند گیاه شناس می‌بیند بیشتر توجه او به نوع گیاهان و درختان آنست اما هنگامیكه یك هنرمند یا شاعر یا نقاش آن جنگل را می‌بیند دید دیگری دارد هنرمند زیبائیهای آنرا پیدا میكند و بتوصیف آن می‌پردازد. بسیاری از زیبائیها در جهان هست كه بحال خود معرفت ندارند این آدمی و هنرمند است كه این زیبائیها را پیدا كرده و نشان میدهد یكی با سخن یكی با قلم یكی با قلم مو و دیگری با آهنگ و نوای موسیقی . . . . هر پدیده هنری از دو عامل عینی و ذهنی پدید میآید و هر پدیده هنری نیز باین عامل نهادی تجزیه میشود. اصل عامل عینی است و عامل ذهنی نیز نتیجه مشهودات بصری در ذهن پدید میآید. باید گفت كمال هنر چه بصورت عینی و چه ذهنی هر دو در زیبایی است و در هنر حساب سود و زیان نیست پس هنر تجلی مدركات نیرومندی است كه انسان آنها را بدست آورد. یا بازده ذهنی مشهودات به دیگران و بگفته دیگر هنرمند چنین تعریف میشود: هنر به توانی نمایش انعكاسهای جهان برونی در مغز آدمی است. هنر در گذشته برای هنر نبوده بلكه انگیزه‌های دیگر داشته اما امروز هنر برای هنر خود موقعیتی دارد. مكتبهای هنری نیز در گذشته بیشتر بر حسب مقتضیات زمان و مكان پدید آمده است. اما درباره شعر كه یكی از شقوق هنر است:. زینرو درباره هنر میتوان گفت هنر تنها نشان دادن زیبائی نیست بلكه نشان دادن عیب و زشتیها نیز چه بسا هنر باشد. گاه زور و پول از هنر بهره گیری كرده است چنانكه انگیزه پیدایش بسیاری از اثرهای هنری نیازمندی بوده است.

فروید اتریشی هنر را زاده عقده‌های جنسی وفعالیتی در قلمرو جنسی میداند وشیللر واسپنسر هنر را از زمره بازی بشمار آورده اند و عقیده دارند هنر غریزه بازیگری آدمی را ارضاء میكند و انگیزه هنر آفرینی میشود.

 

مادام دوستال نویسنده فرانسوی عقیده دارد هنر آفرینی زادة تأثیر آب وهوا و محیط است.

 

هیپولیت تن نیز عقیده دارد آثار هنری زاده عاملها و خصوصیتهای نژادی و محیط طبیعی انسانی و نمودهای تاریخی است.

 

گیو انگلیسی نیز در سال 1889 كتابی بنام «هنر از نظر موازین علم الاجتماع» نگاشت كه در آن كتاب معیار احساس و ذوق زیباپرستی را در هیجانهای غریزه زندگی دانسته است. دانشمندان دیگری عقیده دارند هیجانهای درونی كه ریشه غریزی و گاه غریزه جنسی دارد موجب انفعال و تحرك نفس برای هنر آفرینی میشود و برخی انگیزه هنر آفرینی را یك ودیعت الهی دانند كه بمیراث به آدمیان رسیده است.





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چهارشنبه 16 آذر 1390 :: نویسنده : مریم ورمزیار
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